Is Your College Planning Strategy Appropriate?
I recently stumbled upon some poor recommendations and unclear advice given from some in the financial industry to the public, and I think its an important one to clear up.
Anyone raising a child in this world likely has at least one financial concern in common with one another financing college. Its become a pretty hefty goal to find the best financial plan to allow your kid to afford a college education, and this goal is being capitalized on by some disingenuous financial professionals.
You see, some people who call themselves college advisors are really insurance agents, primarily. Their goal is to sell a product, all the while claiming that such a purchase will allow the prospective purchasers child to receive more college aid. And in some cases, that advice might be accurate. In many cases, however, such advice is aimed less at college aid, and more at the insurance agents commission.
A students eligibility for needs-based aid is predicated on a number of factors, including portions of the parents countable assets, the parents income, the students countable assets and the students income. These figures are used, in part, to calculate the familys expected family contribution (EFC). The amount of aid that is awarded is equal to the cost of the chosen school minus the EFC. So, the higher a familys countable assets, the higher their EFC, and the lower their aid. Therefore, in some cases, it can be wise to shift money that would otherwise be considered a countable asset into an annuity or life insurance contract, which, in some circumstances, becomes a non-countable asset. As such, the money in those contracts is not reported on the Free Application for Federal Student Aid (FAFSA). This is a good thing.
However, many schools require a supplemental report, the CSS (College Scholarship Service) Profile, in addition to the FAFSA application. Those annuities mentioned above will show up on the CSS Profile.
This means that when schools using the CSS Profile determine the needs-based financial aid offered to a child, that figure will be partially decreased by any non-qualified annuity assets listed on the CSS Profile. This wont necessarily affect a students federal aid eligibility, but it will often affect the amount of institutional aid offered.
(Full disclosure here: I am a big fan of both term and cash value life insurance, as well as fixed index annuities. I even own some myself. However, just with any financial instrument, they must be used appropriately.)
Another thing to consider when looking into a strategy using life insurance or an annuity to hide assets is whether the amount of money that can be stashed away will even make a difference. As I mentioned above, the eligibility for aid is calculated by taking the cost of a school and subtracting the expected family contribution. Lets assume that a student holds $15,000 in assets. The EFC comprises (among other things) 20 percent of the students savings. But if your child is going to a school that costs $20,000, and your expected family contribution would be $25,000, including that $15,000, stashing away your kids $15,000 savings account in a life insurance contract will only subtract $3,000 from the EFC, which is still above the cost of that college. If your child wants to attend a school that costs $30,000 a year and all of those numbers are otherwise the same, then making that move could give the child that extra $3,000 of eligibility.
So, you may be asking yourself, why not try such a strategy if it could only help? Even if it is not a sure thing. Well, folks, many of these products are very complex and can have costs associated with them, including surrender fees, should you need access to the money used to fund them. Another consideration is that even if the funds can be accessed, oftentimes taking a distribution from one will then count as income for purposes of that financial aid application. And income, depending on whether it is the parents income or the students, can be factored into the expected family contribution at a higher percentage than a countable asset.
As with any financial strategy, it is important that you examine your specific goals and consider all the circumstances in order to make sure that any offered solution is appropriate for you. It is up to you to wade through the muddied waters and find clarity in your financial situation.